China COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker

Since the pandemic outbreak, China has committed to make its COVID-19 vaccines a global public good. On multiple occasions, high-level Chinese officials have declared that China is fulfilling this pledge by exporting and donating its COVID-19 vaccines to as many countries that it can. This has generated a great deal of interest and discussion amongst experts from various fields. As an independent, mission-driven consultancy that tracks China’s impact on global health, Bridge Consulting aims to examine and offer a comprehensive picture of China’s vaccine outreach, hopefully enabling more informed discussions on this issue worldwide.

Read more about our methodology here

1.5B DOSES SOLD

119M DOSES DONATED

1.2B DOSES DELIVERED

Updated as of 12:00 pm (GMT+8), November 29, 2021.

The figures above are updated weekly. They include all bilateral and multilateral purchases, donations, and deliveries that have been officially reported through publicly accessible sources.

 Weekly Tracker Highlights

  • Africa Update: Total Sales – 136M (+0) | Total Pledged Donations – 19M (+0) | Total Deliveries – 107M (+0)
  • Asia Pacific Update: Total Sales – 835M (+11) | Total Pledged Donations – 76.3M (+0) | Total Deliveries – 772M (+36)
  • Europe Update: Total Sales – 120M (+0) | Total Pledged Donations – 1.93M (+0) | Total Deliveries – 53.3M (+0)
  • Latin America Update: Total Sales – 388M (+0) | Total Pledged Donations – 3.8M (+1.3) | Total Deliveries – 265M (+2)
  • COVAX Update: Total Sales – 64M | Total Deliveries – 36M
  • New countries to receive pledges and/or deliveries of Chinese vaccines: Jamaica

See #ChinaCOVID19Tracker on Twitter:

China’s Vaccines Around the World

This interactive map tracks the vaccine sales and donations that China and Chinese vaccine developers have made. It also tracks the number of delivered vaccines.

China’s Vaccines Across Regions

China has directly provided vaccines to four geographical regions – a total of 114 countries around the world. Out of these four regions, Asia Pacific has received the most significant number of Chinese vaccines, with 39 countries receiving vaccines from China. Latin America has received the second most considerable number of Chinese vaccines, though only 19 countries have received them. In contrast, while Africa has 46 countries receiving vaccines from China, the region has received few Chinese vaccines.

Top 10 Countries (Deliveries): Indonesia (225M), Iran (114M), Brazil (95M), Pakistan (85M), Philippines (58M), Morocco (45M), Myanmar (42M), Bangladesh (41M), Vietnam (37M), Cambodia (36M)

Top 10 Countries (Sales): Indonesia (231M), Iran (110M), Pakistan (106M), Turkey (100M), Brazil (100M), Bangladesh (75M), Mexico (67M), Chile (61M), Philippines (55M), Morocco (50M)

Top 10 Countries (Pledged Donations): Cambodia (11M), Myanmar (9M), Nepal (8M), Laos (7M), Vietnam (6M), Bangladesh (5M), Sri Lanka (5M), Philippines (5M), Pakistan (3M), Afghanistan (3M)

China’s Vaccines in Africa

As part of the South-South Cooperation, China pledged in late February 2021 to provide COVID-19 vaccines to 19 African countries. To date, 46 African countries have been receiving vaccines from China. While the pace of these deals has picked up on several occasions, China’s total number of vaccines delivered to Africa has constantly remained low.

Out of the 155 million pledged doses to Africa, China has delivered 107 million, of which 16 million have been donations. However, issues of affordability and accessibility are particularly critical for African countries with limited financial resources at their disposal. Alongside bilateral agreements, Africa has also been receiving vaccines through the COVAX initiative.

China’s Vaccines in Latin America

Latin America has received the second-largest quantity of Chinese vaccines, despite only 19 countries having vaccine deals with China. Like Africa, Latin America and China are also working under the South-South Cooperation and the Belt and Road Initiative. While China has donated only 3 million doses to the region, it has sold 388 million doses, with 265 million doses delivered. China also provides the region with active ingredients to make Chinese and other vaccines, such as the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Latin America plays an especially significant role to Chinese vaccine developer Sinovac, which has sold  230 million doses (out of 780 million doses sold globally) to 8 Latin American countries.

China’s Vaccines in Asia

Asia has received the most significant number of Chinese vaccines out of all regions in donations and sales. Thus far, the continent has received 772 million doses, 59 million of which are in the form of donations.

In recent months, there has been a shift in the perception of Chinese vaccines in the region as local cases surge despite healthcare workers and citizens being inoculated with these vaccines. These surges have been attributed to the rise of the Delta variant, which is more contagious. In light of this, some countries are considering administering booster shots or mixing Chinese vaccines with other vaccine brands to enhance immunity, especially for vulnerable populations like the elderly and frontline workers.

<

China’s Vaccines in Europe

As a region, Europe has received the least number of deliveries of Chinese vaccines. Thus far, only 53 million doses of Chinese vaccines have been delivered to 10 European countries. However, altogether they have purchased 120 million doses, most of which came from Turkey who penned a deal in November 2020 to buy 100 million doses of Sinovac. Turkey has redistributed doses via donations and sales to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Azerbaijan, Albania, and more.

One possible factor why Chinese vaccines are not widely used in European countries is because they have not yet received approval from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The EMA is an agency of the European Union in charge of the evaluation and supervision of medicinal products. However, national medical regulators may authorize the vaccines for emergency use which some Central and Eastern European countries have done.

China’s Vaccines by Manufacturers

Sinopharm and Sinovac have been the two most prominent manufacturers of Chinese COVID-19 vaccines sold and donated worldwide. Sinovac remains the leading supplier of vaccine sales by China, having sold 780 million doses and supplied vaccines to 44 countries in total.

On the other hand, Sinopharm has been the leading supplier of vaccine donations from China, supplying vaccines to 77 countries.

Sinovac – CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine

On June 1, 2021, the World Health Organization officially listed the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine developed by Chinese biopharmaceutical company Sinovac Biotech Ltd. for emergency use. This is the second Chinese COVID-19 vaccine to receive this approval, after the inactivated Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine was approved for emergency use in May 2021. While there have been multiple studies on the efficacy of this vaccine in different countries, the WHO has stated that overall results have shown that the vaccine prevented symptomatic disease in 51% of those vaccinated and prevented severe COVID-19 and hospitalization in 100% of the studied population. Sinovac is the fastest-growing Chinese vaccine manufacturer, in terms of production capacity expansion outside China (See 5. Overseas Manufacturers of Chinese Vaccines section).

In the past months, numerous publications and studies on the Sinovac vaccine have made the vaccine’s effectiveness the center of Chinese vaccine discussions worldwide. Different results from vaccine effectiveness studies in other countries, notably between Chile and Turkey, and rising infections in places that have mainly administered the Sinovac vaccine have fuelled the debate over the actual effectiveness of the Sinovac vaccine, especially against the Delta variant.

Sinopharm – Beijing Bio-Institute of Biological Products Co-Ltd. (BBIBP) COVID-19 Vaccine

On May 7, the World Health Organization officially listed the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine developed by Beijing Bio-Institute of Biological Products Co-Ltd. (BBIBP) under the China National Pharmaceutical Group Corporation (Sinopharm) for emergency use, marking a significant milestone as the first Chinese COVID-19 vaccine to receive this approval. The vaccine’s less stringent storage requirement and expanding production capacity within and outside China can help countries and international organizations resolve some of the urgent problems facing the current global vaccine supply.

While the Sinopharm vaccine has received fewer media coverage than the Sinovac vaccine, there are still debates over its effectiveness. In May 2021, a spike in COVID-19 cases in Seychelles, despite being the world’s most vaccinated nation, raised concerns about the Sinopharm vaccine. In addition, the accessibility and affordability of the Sinopharm’s vaccine in developing countries still needs to be addressed.

China’s Multilateral Vaccine Contributions

Chinese vaccines have been endorsed by a growing list of international organizations in recent months, making these vaccines available through multilateral streams.

July 21, 2021. CEPI, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, announced that it would be working with Shanghai Zerun Biotechnology Co., Ltd (a.k.a ZerunBio) and its parent company Walvax Biotechnology Co., Ltd (a.k.a. Walvax) to develop vaccines for both COVID-19 and other variants. CEPI has preliminarily committed US$13.1 million to support the initial stages of vaccine development.

July 12, 2021. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, announced that it had signed advance purchase agreements (APA) with Sinopharm for its BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus vaccine and Sinovac for its CoronaVac inactivated virus vaccine. While China has previously committed 10 million doses of its COVID-19 vaccines to the COVAX Facility, most vaccines donated and exported by China so far have gone through bilateral channels. These agreements, however, will begin to make 110 million doses immediately available to participants of the COVAX Facility, with options for additional doses. COVAX is expected to receive 50 million doses of Sinovac in September, and another 150 million doses over the rest of the year.

June 30, 2021. Gavi announced that it had signed an APA with Clover Biopharmaceuticals for its SCB-2019 protein-based adjuvanted vaccine, the R&D of which is funded by (CEPI), making up to 414 million doses available to participants of the COVAX Facility.

Chinese leaders have repeatedly emphasized that China wants to promote multilateral cooperation in the global response to COVID-19. In March 2021, announcements of China’s vaccine donations to the United Nations Peacekeepers and the International Olympic Committee marked the first wave of multilateral vaccine assistance. China’s increasing participation in vital multilateral mechanisms is an encouraging step forward in fulfilling its promise of making Chinese COVID-19 vaccines a global public good and promoting multilateralism, on top of its many bilateral vaccine distribution deals.

Since Mid-August, 2021, we can confirm that countries have received Chinese vaccine deliveries procured via the COVAX facility. The following table illustrates deliveries that have been publicly announced thus far:

Overseas Manufacturers of Chinese Vaccines

It is encouraging to see efforts from Chinese COVID-19 vaccine developers in helping their partners in developing countries build up their local vaccine production capacities. At the Global Health Summit 2021, Chinese President Xi Jinping reiterated China’s support for its vaccine developers to transfer technologies to other developing countries and to carry out joint production. He stated that “having announced support for waiving intellectual property rights on COVID-19 vaccines, China also supports the World Trade Organization and other international institutions in making an early decision on this matter”.

Further details:

More

Notes

Additional information on procurements of Chinese vaccines.

More

Methodology

This vaccine tracker is based entirely on data from reliable publicly accessible sources collected and compiled by Bridge Consulting with the help of Global Health Strategies (Brazil) and is updated every Monday by 7:00 PM (BJT GMT+8).

Where do we get our data?

Bridge collects and verifies data on Chinese vaccine sales, donations and deliveries every week. We source all our data from reliable, publicly accessible sources such as official government press releases, credible international and local news sources, and social media posts by government offices and verified officials.

How are countries and regions defined?

Our data is compiled and organized by country according to the United Nations’ M49 standard.

Why does our data change sometimes?

With the help of Global Health Strategies (Brazil), we constantly review our data for irregularities and correct them whenever new information becomes available.

Why does our data differ from other sources?

All our data is sourced manually by our team from publicly available sources. If you find that we have missed out on something, please let us know at vaccinetracker@bridgebeijing.com.